Here in this articles we will tell about India’s New Education Policy, highlight of policy, constitutional provision etc.
New Education Policy
On the July 29 the union cabinet approved the new education policy of the country. It is the third education policy of the country till date.
The first education policy was brought in 1968 and respectively the second one in 1986 under the Indira Gandhi government . It was revised again in 1992 under the leadership of PV Narasimha Rao.
The draft of new education policy was prepared by former ISRO chief K Kasturirangan.
Brief history of modern education in India
History of modern education take us back to the British colonial era.
The britisher brought the modern education to the country for the sake of their convenience.
They need the Indians for doing clerical jobs so they introduced modern education.
So they created a class of Indian who would be “ Indian in blood and colour but British in taste “ who would act as interpreters between government and the masses.
Lord Macaulay is known as the father of modern education in India . His education policy known as “Macaulay’s minutes” in 1835 aimed to create the new system of education.
* Lord Macaulay is also responsible for the introduction of Indian Penal code (IPC) in 1860.
Highlights of the New Education Policy of India
- The current system of 10+2 is replaced by 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to the ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14 , 14-18 respectively.
- NEP expands the mandatory education age of 6-14 years to 3-18 years. There will be 12 years of schooling and three years of pre education (Balavatika).
- The HRD ministry renamed as Education ministry.
- National test agency will conduct the common entrance exams .
- To reduce the importance of board exam and to reduce the stress of students board exams can be conducted twice in a year.
- Coding will be taught from the class 6 onwards.
- No rigid separation of streams be it science or commerce.
- Undergraduate programmes will be of 3-4 years with multiple exit options. Certificate course will be of one year, diploma will be of 2 years, bachelor programmes will be of three years but 4 year programmes will be preferred.
- M.Phil courses will be discontinued.
- Upto the grade 5 the teaching will be in mother tongue/regional language wherever possible . No language will be imposed on any student.
- UGC and AICTE will be dismantled and a new apex body will be formed, known as Higher education commission of India (HECI). It will regulate the higher education except legal and medical education.
- A new framework, National curriculum framework for teacher education (NCFTE 2021) will be formulated for teachers by NCERT. The minimum qualification for teaching will be a 4 year integrated B.Ed programme.
- 6% of GDP will be provided to education sector , earlier it was 1.7%.
- A national scholarship portal will be set up for SC,ST & OBC .
- Opening of NCC wings in secondary and higher secondary schools.
- Free boarding facilities in Jawahar navodaya vidyalaya.
- A special dedicated unit for the purpose of building digital infrastructure.
- National research foundation will be established for boosting the research capacity across higher education.
The new education policy aims to transform India into a vibrant knowledge society by drawing from the country’s ancient legacy and best ideas and practices from across the globe.
The policy will bridge the gap of inequality in the accessibility of education. As Maulana Abul Kalam Azad said in 1948 the country’s first education minister.
“ We must not for a moment forget, it is a birth right of every individual to receive at least the basic education without which he/she cannot fully discharge his/her duties as a citizen.
Constitutional and legal provisions for New Education Policy of India
In the part 4 of the constitution article 45 and 39(f) of directive principles of state policy has a provision for state funded equitable and accessible education for all its citizens.
The 42nd amendment to the constitution in 1976 moved education from state to the concurrent list.
The education policy in state is non mandatory by central government, it only provides a broader guideline State government are expected to follow.
But states likeTamil Nadu does not follow the three language formula provided in first education policy.
The 86th amendment in 2002 made education a fundamental right under the article 21-A.
Right to education act , 2009 aims to provide free education from the age 6-14 years.
This act also mandates 25% reservations to the disadvantage section of the society.
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